Pakistan Telecom ARPU Declining

Deep inside all the hustle and bustle, glittering stats, assertions about one of the fastest growing 3G and 4G markets in the world and millions of new subscriptions every month, the telecom sector of Pakistan — in reality — is in deep trouble.

The telecommunication sector is made up of companies that make communication possible on a global scale, whether it is through the phone or the Internet, through airwaves or cables, through wires or wirelessly. These companies created the infrastructure that allows data in words, voice, audio, or video to be sent anywhere in the world. The largest companies in the sector are telephone (both wired and wireless) operators, satellite companies, cable companies, and Internet service providers.

Telecom companies operate in an extremely competitive industry where it’s a constant bidding war over who offers the best coverage for the best price. Providing a service that is widely used by consumers requires direct, real-time access to customers in order to stay one step ahead of competition. Social media is, without a doubt, the most effective way of making a real and meaningful connection with customers and in this website you can learn how to grow it.

Telecom companies all offer very similar services, so it’s extremely hard to differentiate themselves from their competitors. However, a strong social media presence and a well-rounded social customer service team continuously prove to be powerful vehicles in building brand awareness and establishing a distinctive brand that meets the needs of their customers within a competitive industry.

Not long ago, the telecommunications sector consisted of a club of big national and regional operators. Since the early 2000s, the industry has been swept up in rapid deregulation and innovation. In many countries around the world, government monopolies are now privatized and they face a plethora of new competitors. Traditional markets have been turned upside down, as the growth in mobile services outpaces the fixed-line and the Internet starts to replace voice as the staple business.


Engro 49.5MW Wind Energy Plant at Gharo

This week we went to visit Tenaga Wind Farm in Gharo being commissioned by Engro Pakistan. According to the company of energy systems the project has a total capacity of producing 49.5 MW of electrical energy from 31 turbines rated at 1.6 MW each (one turbine out of the 31 produces 1.5 MW). The total cost of the project is $120 m and it is expected that this investment would be recovered in 5-6 years. The cost of a unit (kwhr) is going to Rs.15 as agreed with the Government of Pakistan. If people need the best passive income investments, they have to take help from experts in the field. Mentioning UK Energy Support, they provide valuable expertise in this regard.

The total energy produced annually would be 134 GWh which can be used to calculate the average power produced by the 31 wind turbines.

Power = Energy/Time = (134,000,000 kwhr)/(365 x 24 hours) = 15296 kW = 15.3 MW

That is the project would produce on average only 30.9 % (15.3 / 49.5) of its rated capacity. Furthermore the electrical energy needs to be converted to a level suitable to be supplied to the national grid. For this the electrical energy is converted from 690 Volts AC to 33,000 Volts AC. Lastly the project would be monitored and maintained by General Electric (GE) for two years as this is part of the turbine purchase contract. Three such projects are at various stages of installation in Gharo and seven such projects  are being undertaken in Jhimpir which is the preferred wind corridor in Sind due to quality/firmness of the soil there.


Quaid-e-Azam Solar Park - The Reality

There have been conflicting claims about the capacity of Quaid-e-Azam Solar Park (QASP) in the media. While the the chief executive officer of the Quaid-i-Azam Solar Power (Pvt) Limited claims that the project is producing 12% more energy than expected, opposition parties are claiming that it is producing only 18 MW as compared to the advertised capacity of 100 MW. So what is the truth?

Energy vs Power

Actually both the parties are correct in some sense. While the project does have the capacity of producing 100 MW peak power, this only happens for a very short duration during the day (around noon time). When averaged over 24 hours the park is only producing about 20 MW. This can be easily calculated by assuming that the peak solar energy is available for 5 hours (typical for this region) and average it over 24 hours.

100 MW x (5/24) = 20.83 MW

We can also calculate the average power produced by the park by looking at the numbers provided by Quaid-i-Azam Solar Power (Pvt) Limited on its website. According to the website the park is producing 169 Gigawatt Hour as compared to the original estimates of 153 Gigawatt Hour per year (a 12% increase). But this is energy, how do we calculate power?

The answer is simple, divide the energy produced in a year by the number of hours in a year (365 x 24 = 8760 hours).

Average power produced = 169 GWH / 8760 hours = 19.29 MW

Cost of Production and Tariff

The good news is that there is very minimal cost of production of solar energy (there was an installation cost of Rs.13 billion plus there are about 700 security personal deployed for the security of 700 Chinese engineers working in the park). The tariff can be easily calculated by the revenue earned and the energy produced. According to QASP sources the revenue reached a peak of Rs. 320 million in September. Lets calculate the cost per unit from the total revenue earned in September and the energy produced in the month of September.

Cost per unit = Rs.320,000,000/(19,290kW * 24 hours * 30 days)= Rs. 23.04/unit.

So the QASP claim that it is costing a consumer Rs.12/unit is not true. The actual cost to a consumer is Rs.23.04/unit. Again the data has been taken from QASP website.

Environmental Impact

There is no doubt that there is going to be a negative impact on the environment. About 500 acres of desert have been taken over by QASP and this will definitely impact the biodiversity of the region. The total area dedicated to this project by Chief Minister of Punjab Mr. Shahbaz Sharif is 6500 acres (near Lal Sohanra National Park). Lastly there are vasts swaths of land in Balochistan which receive about 10-20% more Solar Irradiance than any location in Punjab and there are a number of new and existing Hydel projects that are crying for attention (case in point being Tarbela expansion which can yield additional 1400 MW of power).

Information taken from:

Common Plumbing Problems

It can be difficult to self-diagnose plumbing problems or even articulate the issue to plumbers. Diagnosing the problem requires a few steps to be performed before calling a "plumber near me" to your house or commercial property, and if you don’t follow the steps thoroughly enough you might not get the information you need to solve the specific problem you are experiencing! It’s important to first determine the water source which feeds your home for any water leaks.

There may be more than one source so you need to find out all that you have available so that you can gage the size of the leak situation you are dealing with from a water loss perspective and of course determine which of the various leaks may be causing you the most immediate discomfort and cost to you at the moment of time with respect to the water supply feeding your property or home.

If you don’t handle plumbing problems appropriately right away, you can look forward to spending hundreds on costly repairs. Leaks might be indicators of a larger issue with your plumbing system that requires the expertise of an experienced plumber; so if you see signs of a leak in your bathroom or kitchen, call a plumber right away. You may also consider hiring this plumber who specializes in pipe leak repair in Gainesville, FL. Otherwise, plumbing installation services will be required especially if the damages are significant. Those who need plumbing installation in West Palm Beach, FL may contact companies who provide plumbing repairs in GreentownSometimes leaks are not obvious but cause structural damage to your home that can impact your water bill and cause mold or other damage throughout the house. If you notice a slow draining sink or a faucet that makes a hissing sound when you turn it on you should consider calling a professional quickly and unclog your drains with Sharp Plumbing because these are sure signs that there is a problem with the pipes that need attention immediately or else they might get worse (like leaking) and cost you more money to repair later on down the road! In addition, if you need water heater repair, then you may consider hiring this expert to repair your water heater in Five Forks, SC or provide water heater installation in Santa Clara, CA. And if you need to install a water well pump, then you may consider getting help from well pump services in Snohomish, WA.

Expert plumbers like these Spokane plumbers will be able to advise you on when is the best time to replace certain fixtures in your home and give expert advice on which products to go with to avoid worrying about issues in the future with your current equipment in the home, especially when getting kitchen and bathroom remodeling or water filtration (check out here the benefits of water filtration systems). If you are having trouble with those parts of your home you need to get advice and recommendations from an expert now before things can get even worse causing you more expense in both money and inconveniences.

Roof Designs that Fit in with your Home

With an astute roof design, you can reflect your personality while adding value to your property. But what are the options available? If your home has a low pitched or hipped end-of terrace house it’s common for part of the slates not to be visible above the gable ends of your roof and in some styles no tile will be present at all over the windows/doorway area or the dormers. For further help and advice, talk to the expert Roof and Window replacement in New Richmond.

According to a professional like this Centerton roofing contractor, this can be an issue for anyone living close to a road or a cul de sac as the tiles can make it look dirty from the road or even see into someone’s house from the outside looking in! In addition there are many styles that require the roof pitch to be slightly greater at the rear than at the front; this can either be a natural slope to your plot or have the pitch altered to raise the rear a couple of degrees to ensure rainwater doesn’t collect in the gutter causing internal damage due to poor drainage and lead work issues later on down the line by washing down the building façade and causing wear on surrounding walls and/or gutters. While if you want to improve your flooring, the use of services from can be really useful for this.

In the olden days it was common practice to extend the eaves height of the rear of the property when pitching up a roof to allow for changes in elevation between the front and back of the property – allowing the lower ceiling height at the back to be fully utilized by the use of (often fixed) attic ladders inside bedrooms & such to create a usable upstairs loft space for storage or even a room to sleep if your budget allowed at all – but most properties today are plastered ceilings throughout with no additional access above through the main house so reaching the first floor is now only possible by a staircase behind the kitchen leading to an unfurnished hallway space from which you can access either bedrooms and bathrooms. Click here to find more info on epoxy flooring.

The only question is: which terrace roofing is the right for your needs? Do you wish to feel protected from the weather, have a romantic view of the stars or are you looking for comfort on the terraces of your villa and holiday home in the sun. Before you decide you have to weigh in all the various pros and cons of 3 different types of terraces roofs and their different installation costs as well as the advantages and disadvantages on the daily use of the roof terraces, and if you have other construction projects, you could also use Heras Fence Covers for the fences and protection of these projects.

When considering the choice of your top roof, the top priority is probably the protection of the sunbather (or bather) from the rain and wind while relaxation in the garden, which is why it is a must to always be checking to repair leaky roofs. If you are constructing a new building or have an existing roof that has leaked for many years, you may consider using a cost-effective system like this polyurethane spray foam that will save you money in the long run. Make sure as well to have regular siding and roof repair with the help of professional roofing services such as the Carolina Home Specialists. If you also are in need of installing, repairing or replacing your gutter and siding in Chester County, PA, experts who provide roof repair service in Spartanburg, SC or roof replacement in Bristol, PA can work with you.

A very pleasant feeling offers more insulated structures as that differs something between types of external coverings and from a solid tile facades to large panoramic glass fronts from which not even a drop of rain gets through thus 2 flat roofs can be glazed either with opaque solid bricks or a glazing bar with an insulating spacer so airtight contact is possible also when using a hosepipe or other water outlet such as terrace pump etc. Always advisable to protect your garden furniture and objects with the table umbrella so the then undisturbed sun can be well enjoyed at the dining table!

Fire incidents at home

A fire in your home is often a very distressing experience, even if it is a relatively small one. Regardless of whether the incident was cause by cigarettes or an electrical malfunction in your heating system or an overloaded circuit – you are always better off in the hands of professionals trained in responding to and containing the damage that it inevitably unleashes on a household or business facility. A house fire is a traumatic event for many of the homeowners involved (who are often in a state of shock) and a dreadful event for the home as well.

According to the Best electrician in Orlando, the effects of fire damage to a home or business can be long lasting if not properly handled and quickly repaired. This is why it's important to make sure you do regular electrical services, maintenance checks and inspections in your home with the help of professionals like the Lakewood, CO electrician. This will ensure that thee aren't any hazards in your home. For example, if your heating system is not working properly it can heat up past its regular limit and potentially cause a fire. If you get an inspection done at least once a year, you can know when it would be the right time to repair your broken boiler in Mahomet, IL through experts like Total System Services HVAC who provide heat pump repair in Austin, TX.

Another instance would be wiring. If you smell something on your wiring, then call underground wiring repair experts to inspect it. When in need for an electrical wiring repair in Medfield, MA, you can call Paul Macrina Electrical Contracting Inc. today.

In addition, if you are having issues with your electrical outlets, then you may consider hiring an electrician in Riverside or an electrical installation company. If you are planning to replace your old electrical outlets or get surge protection, then you may get professional help from an expert in outlet installation in Prescott or surge protector install for your whole home.

What to do After a Fire in Your Home | Steps to Take | Restorations (UK)

Once the initial emergency is over, and the fire has been put out, there are important actions that need to be taken to start the recovery process. These actions will not only minimize the risk of permanent damage to your property and help speed the restoration/rebuild-up phase; these actions can also help prevent structural damage due to mold growth or drying-out problems and can help you prove to your insurance company that you weren't responsible for the damage in the first place! You should also install fire alarm systems to avoid this from happening again.

Containment of the fire should be one of your first priorities: The fire will have heat and plenty of smoke for several days after initial ignition so trying to fight it with water may be very risky and possibly unsafe... Rely on professional fire damage cleanup service to clean up soot and smoke safely and perform all water extractions to save additional property damage from occurring later down the line. You should never be the one cleaning up the mess left behind by a fire - make sure you choose a reliable and trustworthy company who will ensure proper containment of all debris & waste.  And of course do take pictures and video of any damaged areas to document the extent of the damage and to help identify the culprit that caused the event to take place at all!  Lastly do not wait too long to contact your insurance provider to begin the process because much of the claim processing takes place while the "event" is still happening, visit to get more information.

World Fossil Fuel Reserves

While alternate energies such as solar and wind are becoming increasingly important by the day, fossil fuels still have an important place in the energy mix and will continue to do so in foreseeable future. In this post, we compare the reserves of three most important fossil fuels and their total value as per market rates at the moment amongst the top ten producers of the world.

Rank Country Oil (billion barrels) Gas (trillion cubic feet) Coal (billion tons) Value (trillion dollars)
1 Russia 87 1163 157 40.7
2 Iran 157 1187.3 35.3
3 Venezuela 297.6 196.4 479 34.9
4 Saudi Arabia 265.9 290.8 33
5 USA 35 300 237 28.5
6 Canada 173.9 70 6.58 20.2
7 Iraq 150 126.7 18
8 Qatar 23.9 885.1 16.4
9 UAE 97.8 215.1 13.8
10 China 17.3 109.3 115 13.2
Iran Pakistan Gas Pipeline

Iran Pakistan Gas Pipeline

From a regional perspective it is important to note that two of Pakistan's neighbors namely Iran and China have substantial reserves of oil, gas and coal. Iran is in fact number one as far as proven reserves of natural gas are concerned and fourth in the world in oil reserves. However, large production of fossil fuels has been hampered by the sanctions imposed on Iran by USA and EU.

It is expected that once these sanctions are removed Iran will have a greater role to play in the international market of fossil fuels. It must also be noted that work is under progress on the Pak-Iran gas pipeline, which will bring natural gas from Iran to the cities of Pakistan through an oil reclamation service. Iran has completed most of the work on its side of the border but work is slow on the Pakistani side.

Source: Business Insider

Business Insider used data from British Petroleum’s 2013 statistical review of world energy and calculated the countries with the largest reserves in three key fossil fuel categories—oil, coal, and natural gas.

BI then calculated the total value of the reserves by using current global prices.

Solar Panels from Used solar battery

Researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have demonstrated a procedure to convert used lead acid batteries from automobiles into solar panels with the help of a solar power company. A single battery can be used to produce solar panels for as many as 30 homes. It must be noted that with the advancement in solar battery technology it is expected that 200 million lead acid batteries would be retired soon from USA alone. This development shows us a way forward to reusing a huge resource of lead that would be otherwise go to dumping sites. There is also these lithium solar batteries | Shop Solar Kits that you can use for your solar battery system.

Do you want to save money on your home energy costs? Do you want to reduce your impact on the environment? Are you looking for an investment that will pay you dividends in the long term? If you answered yes to any of these questions, then you can view our blog here for a solar energy system which is probably the right for you. If you're also looking for investing in multifamily properties, you can click here for the best options. Get  the best furniture from the TV Bed Store and find the latest solar panels for your home.

A material that is making this possible is organo lead halide perovskite. A layer of perovskite only 1/2 a micrometer thick is enough to produce a solar panel and does not require a very high manufacturing process like for other silicon based solar panels. One might think that this is another experimental material that achieves an efficiency in single digits. But this is hardly the case. In just a few years of research perovskite based solar cells have achieved efficiency of more than 19%. It is expected by the end of 2014 the efficiency would cross the psychological barrier of 20%.

1 Battery Provides Solar Panels for 30 Homes

1 Battery Provides Solar Panels for 30 Homes

Perovskite (source: Wikipedia)  is a calcium titanium oxide mineral species composed of calcium titanate, with the chemical formula CaTiO3. The mineral was discovered in the Ural Mountains of Russia by Gustav Rose in 1839 and is named after Russian mineralogist Lev Perovski (1792–1856).

It lends its name to the class of compounds which have the same type of crystal structure as CaTiO3 known as the perovskite structure. The perovskite crystal structure was first described by Victor Goldschmidt in 1926, in his work on tolerance factors. The crystal structure was later published in 1945 from X-ray diffraction data on barium titanate by Helen Dick Megaw.

Efficiency of a solar panel is the ratio of the electrical energy produced to the incident solar radiation e.g. a 20% efficient solar panel of 1 m2 area would produce 200 W when the incident solar radiation reaches a level of 1000 W/m2  ,this makes it perfect for local commercial installations according to these Sport Lighting Contractors.

First Solar Likely to Invest in Pakistan

First Solar, America's Solar giant is poised to invest in Pakistan's Alternate Energy sector after starting a 45 MW Solar project in Indian state of Telangana. First Solar has a worldwide installed capacity of 8 GW and was ranked no. 1 in Forbes list of 25 fastest growing technology companies in USA. The 45 MW project to be launched in Telangana will be operational by May of 2015 and would sell electricity at a rate of $0.106/kWh. India currently has an installed Solar capacity of 2900 MW which will be ramped up to 9000 MW by 2017.

According to some estimates Pakistan is facing an energy shortfall of around 4600 MW and government is quite keen to start new projects, be it Solar, Hydel or Thermal. Pakistan has set a target of 5% of energy to be generated from Alternate Energies by 2030. This is quite a conservative target and might actually be achieved before 2030, especially with the new initiatives such as the 1000 MW Quaid-e-Azam Solar Park to be operational by end 0f 2016. It is hoped that with a stable government and sustained policies in the coming years the Solar Energy sector would prosper and Pakistan would achieve its targets much before 2030.

Solar Park

Solar Park

First Solar Sets New CdTe Solar Cell Efficiency Record

First Solar Inc. an American manufacturer of thin film Photovoltaic (PV) modules announced that it has achieved a record efficiency of 21% for its CdTe Solar Cells. The previous best achieved by the company was 20.4% in Feb of 2014. The record has been accepted by US Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and included in "Best Research Cell Efficiency" reference chart. First solar aims to achieve an efficiency of 22% by 2015.

Thin Film Solar Panels

Thin Film Solar Panels

Note: Efficiency of a Solar Cell is the ratio of the Electrical Energy produced to the incident Solar Energy e.g. if the incident Solar Radiation is 1000 W/m2 the Electrical Energy produced by a 21% efficient Solar Panel of 1 m2 area is 210 W (neglecting the various losses that might be encountered).